Featured The Best Ways To Prevent Diabetes

A few years ago, I discovered that I had pre-diabetes after a regular blood test. For me, the daily insulin injections and the health issues that are a side effect of diabetes were no meager concepts. I had been giving insulin shots to my mother and had also been taking her to the doctor for several years and I did not want to tread the same path. So I started following a regimen for preventing type 2 diabetes. I lost about 10% of my body weight and started regular exercise and walks. I also started paying attention to my caloric intake and my diet. I also monitored my blood sugar for keeping my levels of blood glucose within a normal range. I started taking metformin that targets the insulin resistance of the body. I also go for a hemoglobin A1C test on a regular basis to monitor my levels. So far, I have managed to avert full-fledged diabetes and its treacherous consequences.

I am well aware of the fact that I am one of those 79 million Americans above 20 years of age who have been diagnosed to be suffering from prediabetes. Insulin is one of the most significant problems behind developing diabetes. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and moves glucose from the bloodstream actually the fat cells, muscle and liver. Blood glucose levels tend to climb without insulin resulting in starving cells and tissue damage. As a prediabetic, the steps that I took for preventing diabetes worked for me and I would like to discuss them in details.

As per the concept that I have regarding diabetes, having refined carbs and sugary foods can always increase your chances of suffering from diabetes.  The human body breaks down these foods rapidly into small sugar molecules at a very rapid pace and these get absorbed into the bloodstream. The result of this is a rise in blood sugar stimulating the pancreas towards producing insulin. As I was a prediabetic, the cells of my body were resistant to the action of insulin and therefore there was high sugar in my blood. However, for compensating this, the pancreas makes more insulin with the attempt to bring blood down blood sugar to a level that is considered healthy.

Working out on a regular basis can also help in preventing diabetes and it really worked in my case. Exercise helps in increasing insulin sensitivity of the cells. So, when you are into exercising, less insulin is needed for keeping the levels of blood sugar under control. There are different types of activities that can help in reducing blood sugar and insulin resistance on prediabetic, obese and overweight adults. I resorted to high-intensity interval training, strength training and aerobic exercise in order to prevent diabetes. These exercises worked wonders for me as I have managed to lower my risks of developing diabetes. I have always worked hard towards keeping my body fit and healthy to an extent that it does not contract any diseases and I will continue my efforts in this direction.

Featured Properties and Benefits of omega 3

We all know what are the benefits of fish oil and how it can help us in coping the diseases in our body. If you are the one who is wondering about the properties and benefits of omega 3 then here we have listed all the details you need to know.


The fatty acid property in the omega 3 is essential for the brain and it cures the Alzheimer’s patient at a certain point. It has been proved through study that if you use omega 3 in the diet it makes your brain sharper and stronger.

When it comes to the Alzheimer’s patient then if you will start adding omega 3 in their diet then you can see the visible effects in their memory and they will be better.


For the people who are suffering from the arthritis are often compulsive to consume lots of supplements to relieve the pain. Fish oil is all about the Omega 3 and if you will start to consume it then your supplements are going to cut down.

Fish oil has enough power to make your joints and bones strong as well as you will be able to feel the difference in pain intensity too.


Omega 3 is essential for the cancer patients too. If you are under treatment then you should add omega 3 in your diet and you can visibly see the difference in your body.

Through the study and research, it has been shown that if you start consuming omega 3 during the treatment then it works like a therapy for you and the side effects of the medication will be less harmful to your and for your body.


In case you don’t know, our mind is made up of 60% fats. When we stop taking healthy diet it starts dying and we start developing ADHD. If someone is experiencing the basic symptoms then they should add omega 3 in food.

Omega 3 is going to improve your mind a lot and fat which has been dead in your brain will start getting repaired. During the tests, you will be able to see the difference and this is going to be perfect therapy for your disorder.


A cardiac problem is also one of the dangerous problems your body can develop due to the unnecessary stress and due to the dis-functioning of the heart. Omega-3 fatty acid has the ability to increase the life of the heart patients.

Fatty acid makes your heart work again and it enhances the survival rate. Omega 3 consumption will decrease the chances of heart attack for the patient.


You don’t need any kind of toy to get over your anxiety. If you are a depression and anxiety patient then go for the omega 3. You are going to get rid of the anxiety and depression by consuming it.

Your mood swings will be in your control and you are going to live a normal and healthy life like others. You will be able to get out of the medicine world.

Electrical Engineering of Neurons 101:Components

How are neurons capable of producing nerve impulses? By the way, what is a nerve impulse? What is it that supports it? Let’s see how this happens. The secret of the activity of neurons lies in their cell membrane. This is excitable, that is, a nerve impulse can be triggered by electrical, chemical or mechanical stimulation.

The cell membrane acts as a microscopic electrical circuit. First, it acts as a capacitor that can be charged electrically on both sides since it has a large surface and is made of lipids (fat) very impermeable to electrical charges (an insulating dielectric). Moreover, as in electron, the cell membrane obeys the Ohm law (U = RxI) where the voltage (U) is the product of the resistance (R) and the intensity of the electric current (I). Voltage, or voltage, is formed by the difference between the distribution of electrical charges on either side of the cell membrane. The source of this difference in the distribution of electrical charges comes from the ion exchange pumps. Electric current and resistance, I should rather say electric currents and resistances, are provided by special proteins present in the membrane which are called ion channels. They are the main actors of nerve impulses.

Being excitable involves being in a state ready to be excited. Neurons work actively to create this excitable state by using mechanisms common to all cells. Like other cells in the body, neurons generate a difference in the concentration of ions between the inside and outside of the cell, using proteins inserted into the cell membrane known as “exchange pumps” ion. ” Ion exchange pumps can be considered as the electrical chargers of cell membranes. The sodium-potassium ion exchange pump, the Na + / K + pump , is the most famous of all. With the quiet constancy of the needy, It exits sodium ions (Na + ) and introduces potassium (K + ) ions by burning the ATP, the cellular fuel. Thus, sodium ions (Na + ) are concentrated in the external environment of the neuron, while potassium (K + ) ions are concentrated inside the cells. Similarly, calcium (Ca ++ ) ions are concentrated out of the cells. For each type of ions, there is therefore a concentration gradient that is created: one side of the membrane is much more concentrated than the other side. Inside the cells. Similarly, calcium (Ca ++ ) ions are concentrated out of the cells. For each type of ions, there is therefore a concentration gradient that is created: one side of the membrane is much more concentrated than the other side. Inside the cells. Similarly, calcium (Ca ++ ) ions are concentrated out of the cells. For each type of ions, there is therefore a concentration gradient that is created: one side of the membrane is much more concentrated than the other side.

For biology degree  and biology topics. Visit http://apteronote.com.

The Discovery of Neurotransmitter in Electric Fish

Important discoveries often take advantage of the particularly favorable characteristics of an organ or organism. The discovery of the first neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the electrical organ of electric fish is a striking case.

In the second half of the 19 th century, the physiologist Claude Bernard studied curare mechanism of action. This fish of plant origin is used by Amazonian Indians to paralyze their prey with darts projected with blowguns. In 1878 he proposed that the curare prevent the contact between the nerves and the muscles by “poisoning” the nerve. E. Vulpian, his pupil, later showed that the curare blocked the communication between the nerves and the muscles.

The first one to have hypothesized the existence of a chemical messenger between the neurons is the Spanish Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934), one of the founders of neurosciences. On the basis of improved histological techniques, he described the neuron as the basic functional unit of the nervous system. Cajal was an artist of microscopic anatomy. For the record, Cajal, the son of a doctor, spent much of his youth observing and painting nature. He wanted to become a painter, but his father pushed him more towards medicine. He came to apply his great talent of fine observer and draftsman to the microscopy of the nervous system. Among others, he observed a space (synaptic cleft) between the neurons at their contact (synapse). Of the,

Representation of cerebral cortex neurons by Cajal

In studying the effects of the parasympathetic system, the English physiologist Dale (1914) observed that a chemical substance, acetylcholine (ACh), produced actions similar to this on the heart (slowing heart rate), but these effects Were of short duration. He deduced that the ACh reproduced the action of the parasympathetic nerves and that it had to be rapidly inactivated or destroyed. Then Loewi and Navratil (1921, 1926) carried out experiments, now classical, on stimulation of the vagus nerve (parasympathetic system), innervating an isolated heart of frog perfused with physiological serum. They observed a slowing of the heart rhythm due to the action of the vagus nerve. By placing the perfusion solution from this core in contact with a second isolated frog core, This second heart diminished the frequency of its beatings in turn. The first heart had released a substance, which they called Vagusstoff (vagal substance), capable of slowing down the second heart. Loewi later showed that the vagal substance was actually acetylcholine.

The work done by Dale and Loewi suggested that nerve transmission involves the release of acetylcholine from pre-synaptic nerve terminals and its interaction with receptors in the post-synaptic muscle membrane. This action was very rapid and difficult to determine because an enzyme, cholinesterase (Stedman et al., 1932) rapidly destroyed acetylcholine by hydrolyzing it to acetate and choline. However, they had not been able to show directly the release of acetylcholine.

At the Sorbonne, Nachmansohn and Marnay (1937, 1938) showed that the activity of cholinesterase in the frog muscles was greater in its innervated section than in its nerve-free portion. When the experiment was resumed in the electric organ of T orpedo marmata , Nachmansohn and Lederer (1939) found that the activity of cholinesterase was even higher in this organ than in the frog muscles. This high concentration of cholinesterase in a specialized organ suggested a certain function of acetylcholine in the generation of electric fish discharge.

Fessard, who studied the electrophysiology of Torpedo’s electrical organ , had shown that the discharge of the electrical organ was triggered by the release of a depolarizing substance from the terminals of the electromotive nerves, possibly acetylcholine.

Fessard invited Nachmansohn and Feldberg (from Cambridge at the time who had worked with Dale) to come to work at the University of Bordeaux at Arcachon. In the summer of 1939, they established that acetylcholine was responsible for the synaptic transmission to the electromotive synapses of Torpedo’s electrical organ (Feldberg, Fessard and Nachmansohn, 1939, Feldberg and Fessard, 1942). They based this interpretation on three scientific proofs. First, electrical organ extracts , under conditions that prevent the destruction of ACh, contain a substance that has the same effects as ACh on all systems tested (heart and abdominal frog muscle, dorsal leech muscle , Blood pressure of the cat, etc. ) And has the same chemical properties as ACh (sensitivity to cholinesterase and alkaline solutions). Second, ACh is released into the perfusates of the electrical organ stimulated by the nerves. Finally, arterial injection near the ACh electrical organ results in a discharge similar to that evoked by nerve stimulation.

Nachmansohn moved to the United States where he met Coates a passionate electric eel who worked at the New York Aquarium. Despite the Second World War raging, Coates managed to get supplies of electric eels. Nachmansohn, by studying the chemical reactions supplying energy for electrical conduction, discovered the enzyme choline transferase which synthesizes ACh from choline and acetyl-CoA. This enzyme is present in neurons releasing ACh. This research was funded by the US Department of War who was interested in the effects of DFP (di-isopropyl fluroophosphate), a neurotoxic gas that acts by blocking synaptic transmission. Nachmansohn showed that DFP inhibits the action of acetylcholinesterase.

As a medal has two sides, work on neurotransmitters, molecules released by neurons to synapses as chemical messengers, stimulated another area of ​​research. If there is a chemical messenger released from one side of the synapse, there must be a receiver to accommodate it on the other side. After being published in 1900 by Paul Erlich, this theory of “key and lock” was taken up by Langley, who hypothesized that acetylcholine acted on the muscle because “there was a receptor” for ACh On the surface of muscle cells. Dale developed this theory of the receiver (1959) and Nachmansohn applied it to the receptors of ACh, then his students Karlin and Changeux took over.

Electric fish have always intrigued humans and have been part of the most challenging research that has allowed the invention of the electric battery, the discovery of nerve conduction, the discovery of synaptic transmission by a neurotransmitter. Even today, highly electric fish are used as a model for the study of synaptic transmission. For their part, weakly electric fish have become classical models in the understanding of sensory systems in neuroscience.

For more online biology courses and biology videos. Click here!